بررسی مقادیر رس با استفاده از طیف‌سنجی ابرطیفی آزمایشگاهی (LDRS)

مجید دانش, حسینعلی بهرامی, روشنک درویش‌زاده, علی‌اکبر نوروزی

چکیده


بخش رس از مهم‌ترین اجزای بافت خاک است که در عملیات مدل­سازی زیست­محیطی2 و پهنه­بندی رقومی خاک3 بسیار مورد توجه است. ازآنجا­که این ویژگی از تغییرپذیری­های مکانی4 تأثیر می‌پذیرد، تشخیص و پهنه­بندی و پایش این پارامتر، در مقیاس وسیع و با روش­های نمونه­برداری سنتی و تحلیل آزمایشگاهی معمول، بسیار هزینه­بر و وقت­گیر است. بنابراین، تقاضا برای بررسی این­گونه اطلاعات با کیفیت خوب، هزینۀ کم و قدرت تفکیک (مکانی) مناسب، در مباحث و زمینه­هایی همچون کشاورزی دقیق5 (PA) و برنامه­ریزی اراضی6 (LP) بسیار زیاد شده است. با ظهور طیف­سنجی ابرطیفی آزمایشگاهی (LDRS) که براساس ارتعاشات بنیادین7 (FVs)، علائم ترکیبی8 و فرعی9 حاصل از گروه­های عاملی10 به تشخیص و بررسی اجزای خاک می­پردازد، روزنه­ای در بررسی این پارامتر خاک ایجاد کرده است. طی تحقیق حاضر، از طیف­سنجی بازتابی مجاورتی11 (PSS) برای بررسی مقادیر رس در قسمت­هایی از استان مازندران استفاده شده است. بدین‌ ترتیب، مجموع 128 نمونه از عمق 20 سانتیمتری سطح خاک و براساس روش نمونه­برداری طبقه­بندی‌شدۀ تصادفی12 (SRS) و نیز با کمک اطلاعات جانبی همچون: زمین­شناسی، کاربری ­اراضی، نقشۀ راه­ها، و خاک­شناسی استان جمع­آوری شد. در ابتدا، مجموع نمونه­ها به دو قسمت تقسیم شد: 96 نمونه برای ایجاد مدل (عملیات واسنجی13) و 32 نمونه برای اعتبارسنجی مستقل14 آن. با بهره­گیری از تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیرۀ 15PLSR و براساس تکنیک اعتبارسنجی متقاطع به روش حذف تکی16 (LOOCV) و عملیات پیش­پردازشی17 چون: میانگین­گیری18 (روش کاهش داده­های ابرطیفی19)، هموارسازی و مشتق اول طیفی براساس الگوریتم ساویتسکی- گولای20، درنهایت مدل کالیبراسیون با چهار فاکتور21 (LFs)، با RMSEC حدود 55/9 و R2C حدود 73/0 و نیز RPDC تقریبی 94/1 و RPIQC تقریبی 19/3 (ست کالیبراسیون)، به‌منزلۀ مطلوب­ترین مدل جهت برآورد مقادیر رس منطقۀ مورد مطالعه، شناخته شد که نتایج حاکی از توانایی مناسب مدل در برآورد رس منطقه بوده است. درنهایت، قابلیت فن­اوری طیف­سنجی بازتابی پراکنشی مرئی-فروسرخ نزدیک22 (VNIR-DRS)، در بررسی اجزای رسی منطقه، به اثبات رسید. همچنین، می‌شود این مدل و نیز دامنه­های طیفی مؤثر به‌دست‌آمده را جهت بررسی مقادیر رس در مقیاس بسیار وسیع، با عملیات بیش­مقیاس­سازی23 به‌وسیلۀ داده­های ابرطیفی هوایی-ماهواره­ای، مبنا قرار داد. این امر نشان‌دهندۀ اهمیت ابرطیف­سنجی آزمایشگاهی، همچون پایه­ای برای تشخیص باندهای طیفی مفید و نیز ایجاد مدل جهت استفادۀ آن در دورسنجی ابرطیفی است. 

واژگان کلیدی


اعتبارسنجی متقاطع، پهنه‌بندی رقومی، دورسنجی ابرطیفی، ابرطیف سنجی آزمایشگاهی، رس، PLSR.

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