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پیش‌بینی فرسایش خندقی با استفاده از سنجندة راداری Alos و مدل Maxent در حوضة الوند
سجاد پیروزی‌نژاد, کریم سلیمانی, محمود حبیب‌نژاد, رضا ذاکری‌نژاد

چکیده
شواهد نشان می‌دهد که سنجش از دور ارزش خود را به‌‌منزلة ابزاری قدرتمند در سراسر جهان تثبیت کرده است. سنجش از دور می‌تواند هزینه‌ها را کاهش دهد و زمان اجرای طرح‌ها را کوتاه کند؛ به‌ویژه با داشتن دیدی جامع از مناطق  بزرگ که دسترسی به آنها دشوار است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر پیش‌بینی فرسایش خندقی، با استفاده از داده‌های سنجش از دور و مدل مکسنت (Maxent) در حوضة الوند، در بخش غربی استان کرمانشاه است. حوضة الوند، به‌دلیل وسعت و آلوده‌بودن به مین و هم‌مرزبودن با کشورعراق، با مشکل دسترسی مواجه است. از سوی دیگر، قالب‌بودن اراضی مارنی و نبود پوشش گیاهی مناسب باعث چیرگی فرسایش خندقی در منطقه شده است. بر همین اساس، در پژوهش حاضر، با کار ترکیبی حاصل از بازدید میدانی و سنجش از دور که در محیط گوگل ارث انجام گرفت، لایة‌ تحلیل مکانی مورد نیاز مدل مکسنت تهیه و پهنة مناطق خندقی رقومی‌سازی شد و به‌صورت‌ متغیرهای مستقل، به مدل معرفی شد. همچنین، برای تجزیه و تحلیل سطح زمین، مدل رقومی ارتفاعی رادار سنجندة الوس به‌کار رفت و پانزده لایة محیطی با دقت تفکیک دَه متر به‌منزلة‌ متغیرهای وابسته تهیه شدند. با استفاده از این مدل کمی و آماری، سه هدف ذیل تحقق یافت: 1. میزان تأثیر هر لایة محیطی با استفاده از آزمون Jackknife به‌دست آمد؛ 2. روند بیشترین و کمترین تأثیر هر پارامتر، با استفاده از رگرسیون لجستیک، بررسی شد؛ 3. نقشة پتانسیل فرسایش خندقی برای کل منطقه تهیه شد. سپس اعتبار‌سنجی مدل، با استفاده از منحنی ROC و محاسبة مساحت زیرمنحنی(AUC) ، صورت گرفت. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده نشان داد مؤثرترین شاخص در ایجاد فرسایش خندقی مربوط به شاخص ارتفاع، فاصلة عمودی از سطح کانال و تجمع جریان است و اعتبارسنجی برابر  با AUC=0.899  است که سطح خوب نتایج را نشان می‌دهد. 
واژگان کلیدی
فرسایش خندقی، سنجش از دور، مدل حداکثر آنتروپی

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