Object-Oriented Classification of Urban Areas Using a Combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Images

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Prof., School of Surveying & Geospatial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran

2 M.Sc. Student, School of Surveying & Geospatial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran


Land use maps describe the spatial distribution of natural resources, cultural landscapes, and human settlements that are essential for decision-makers. Therefore, the accuracy of maps obtained from the classification of satellite images is very effective in uncertainty for urban management. Due to the uniform quality of images in large areas at regular intervals, remote sensing images are essential for land use maps. The primary purpose of this study is to present a proposed method to create an accurate land cover map in urban areas using a combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data. For this purpose, the features of the backscattering coefficient VV and the two parameters obtained from the H-α decomposition method (entropy, alpha) of Sentinel-1 radar images and the features of the blue, green, red band, NDVI, NDWI, MNDWI, and SWI were extracted from Sentinel-2 Multispectral images and used as influential components to classify the urban area. To separate agricultural areas from other coatings, the SWI index was used. Elevation data have also been used to optimally distinguish complex classes with different topographies. We evaluated the extraction of effective indicators from these two datasets in an object-oriented approach based on support vector machine algorithms and random forest for land use classification. The results showed that using properties extracted from radar and Multispectral images simultaneously in the object-oriented classification method could altogether determinate the object's properties in the study area. When optical and radar data were used simultaneously for both classification algorithms, the overall accuracy classification increased. For the stochastic forest method, which provided the highest accuracy, the overall accuracy for the radar and optics data combination approach increased by 13% and 5%, respectively, compared to the radar feature approach and the optics feature approach alone. There was also a significant difference in classification accuracy at all levels between the support vector machine classification algorithm and the random forest. The results showed that the random forest classification method's overall accuracy and support vector machines were 83.3 and 79.8%, respectively, and the kappa coefficient was 0.72 and 0.68%, respectively.


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