Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 M.Sc. Student, Remote Sensing Dep., K.N. Toosi University of Technology

2 Associate Prof., Remote Sensing Dep., Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Eng., K.N. Toosi University of Technology

3 Assistant Prof., Remote Sensing Dep., Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Eng., K.N. Toosi University of Technology

4 Assistant Prof., Civil Eng., K.N. Toosi University of Technology


Increase of temperature with height in the troposphere is called temperature inversion. Parameters such as strength and depth are characteristics of temperature inversion. Inversion strength is defined as the temperature difference between the surface and the top of the inversion and the depth of inversion is defined as the height of the inversion from the surface. The common approach in determination of these parameters is field measurements by Radiosonde. On the other hand the Radiosonde data are too sparse, so using satellite images is essential for modeling the temperature inversion. Necessary condition for the temperature inversion modeling using satellite images, examine the relationship between the brightness temperature difference with the temperature inversion strength and depth of the resulting data is Radiosonde. Temperature inversion phenomenon is common in Tehran. So Mehrabad airport weather station was selected as the 1st study area. Then correlation coefficients between Brightness temperature differences of different band pairs and the inversion depth and strength collected by Radiosonde were calculated. The results showed weak linear correlation. This could be due to the change of the atmospheric water vapor content and the relatively weak temperature inversion strength and depth occurred in Tehran. Proving this hypothesis is an innovation in the present work, in continuation of this research, the factors increasing the linear correlation coefficient was investigated. Due to the presence of deeper and stronger temperature inversion in Kermanshah, this region was chosen as the second studied region. The calculated correlation coefficients increased for Kermanshah all due to increase in the strength and depth of the temperature inversion in this region. Knowing that the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere in winter is less than warm seasons, Tehran and Kermanshah data were divided into two all seasons and cold seasons.Increase of correlation coefficients for both Tehran and Kermanshah in the cold season verifies the effect of atmospheric water content. For instance, the correlation coefficient between BT7.2-BT11 with strength and depth of inversion for Kermanshah for all season are 0.51 and 0.70 respectively. This for cold season was boosted to 0.78 and 0.85.


  1. پوراحمد، ا.، 1377، نقش اقلیم و ساختار جغرافیایی در آلودگی هوای شهر تهران، پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی، شمارة 34.
  2. جهانبخش اصل، س.، روشنی، ر.، 1392، بررسی وضعیت و شدت وارونگی‌های سطح پایین شهر تبریز طی دورة 2004 تا 2008، فصلنامة تحقیقات جغرافیایی، سال 28، شمارة 4، صص. 54-45.
  3. کریمی، م.، درخشان، ح.، 1384، بررسی وارونگی دمایی (اینورژن) در شهر اصفهان، مجموعه مقالات دوازدهمین کنفرانس ژئوفیزیک ایران، صص. 6-1.
  4. مباشری، م.ر.، 1379، آشنایی با فیزیک هوا، انتشارات بهنشر (آستان قدس رضوی).
  5. هدایت، پ.، لشکری، ح.، 1385، تحلیل الگوی سینوپتیکی اینورژن‌های شدید شهر تهران، پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی، شمارة 56، صص. 82-65.
  6. Baker, D., Enz, J. & Paulus, H., 1969, Frequency, Duration, Commencement Time and Intensity of Temperature Inversion at St. Paul-Minneapolis, Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 8, PP. 747-753.
  7. Bonne, J.L., Delmotte, V.M., Cattani, O., Delmotte, M., Risi, C., Sodemann, H. & Steen Larsen, C., 2014, The Isotopic Composition of Water Vapor and Precipitation in Ivittuut, Southern Greenland, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, PP. 4419-4439.
  8. Bourne, S.M., Bhatt, U.S., Zhang, J. & Thoman, R., 2009, Surface-based Temperature Inversions in Alaska from a Climate Perspective, Atmospheric Research, PP. 353-366.
  9. Bradley, R.S. & Keiming, F.T., 1993, Recent Changes in the North American Arctic Boundary Layer in Winter, Journal of Geophys, 98, PP. 8851-8858.
  10. Bradley, R.S., Keiming, F.T. & Diaz., H.F., 1992, Climatology of Surface-based Inversions in the North American Arctic, Journal of Geophys, 97, PP. 699-712.
  11. Devasthale, A., Willen, U., Karlsson, K.G. & Jones, C.G., 2010, Quantifying the Clear-sky Temperature Inversion Frequency and Strength over the Arctic Ocean during Summer and Winter Seasons from AIRS Profiles, the Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, PP. 5565-5572.
  12. Hudson, S.R. & Brandt, R.E., 2005, A Look at the Surface-based Temperature Inversion on the Antractic Plateau, Journal of Climate, 18, PP. 1673-1696.
  13. Hudson, S.R., Town, M.S., Walden, V.P. & Warren, S.G., 2004, Temperature, Humidity, and Pressure Response of Radiosondes at Low Temperature, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 221, PP. 825-836.
  14. Iacobellis, S.F., Norris, J.R., Kanamitsu, M., Tyree, M. & Cayan, D.C., 2009, Climate Variability and California Low-level Temperature Inversions, California Climate Change Center, PP. 1-47.
  15. Jensen, J., 2007, Remote Sensing of the Environment an Earth Resource Perspective, Prentice Hall series in geographic information science, Second Edition.
  16. Kahl, J.D., 1990, Characteristics of the Low-level Temperature Inversion along the Alaskan Arctic Coast, International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 10, PP. 537-548.
  17. Kahl, J.D., Serreze, M.C. & Schnell, R.C., 1992, Low-level Tropospheric Temperature Inversions in the Canadian Arctic, Atmos-Ocean, 30, PP. 511-529.
  18. Kaplan, L.D., 1959, Inference of Atmospheric Structure from Remote Radiation Measurements, Journal of the Optical Society of America, 49, 1004 pages.
  19. King, J.I.F., 1956, The Radiative Heat Transfer of Planet Earth; Scientific Use of Earth Satellites, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, PP. 133-136.
  20. Liu, Y. & Key, J., 2003, Detection and Analysis of Clear Sky, Low-level Atmospheric Temperature Inversion with MODIS, J. Atoms. Oceanic Technol, No. 20, PP. 1727-1737.
  21. Liu Y., Key, J.R., Schweiger, A. & Francis, J., 2006, Characteristics of Satellite – Derived Clear Sky Atmospheric Temperature Inversion Strength in the Arctic, 1980 – 96, Journal of Climate, Vol. 19.
  22. Mahesh, A., Walden, V.P. & Warren, S.G., 1997, Radiosonde Temperature Measurements in Strong Inversions: Correction for thermal lag based on an experiment at South Pole, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 14, PP. 45-53.
  23. Rahimzadegan M. & Mobasheri M.R., 2010, An Attempt for Improving MODIS Atmospheric Temperature Profiles Products in Clear Sky, Meteorological Application, 10.1002/met.221.
  24. Seemann, S.W., Borbas, E.E., Menzel, W.P. & Gumley, L.E., 2006, Modis Atmospheric Profile Retrieval Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, MOD07/MYD07 ATBD C005, Version 6.
  25. Seemann, S.W., Li, J., Menzel, W.P. & Gumley, L.E., 2003, Operational Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature, Moisture, and Ozone from MODIS Infrared Radiances, J. Appl. Meteor, 42, PP. 1072-1091.
  26. Walden, V.P., Mahesh, A. & Warren, S.G., 1996, Comment on Recent Changes in the North American Arctic Boundary Layer in Winter, Journal of Geophys, 101,
  27. PP. 7127-7134.