نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختة کارشناسی ارشد سنجش از دور و GIS، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه سنجش از دور و GIS، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار مؤسسة تحقیقات آب‌وخاک کشور

4 استاد سنجش از دور و GIS، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

تعیین دقیق نیاز آبی محصولات گوناگون و همچنین میزان آب مصرفی در سطحی پهناور و در زمان واقعی یکی از مهم‌ترین نیازهای متخصصان آب‌وخاک است. پیش‌نیاز آن نیز تعیین تبخیروتعرق مرجع است. معمولاً محاسبة این پارامتر براساس استفاده از داده‌های اقلیمی و حل معادلات تجربی انجام می‌شود اما، به‌دلیل محدودبودن و توزیع نامناسب ایستگاه‌های هواشناسی، اغلب استفاده از داده‌های آنها سبب ایجاد خطا در محاسبة این پارامتر می‌شود. بهترین گزینه، به‌منظور برطرف‌کردن این محدودیت، استفاده از داده‌های سنجش از دوری است. بدین‌منظور می‌توان از محصولات گوناگون ماهواره‌ای بهره برد و با ترکیب آنها، برای تهیة نقشه‌های به‌روز تبخیروتعرق مرجع و واقعی اقدام کرد. ازاین‌رو تحقیق حاضر به‌منظور بررسی امکان استفاده از محصولات سامانه‌های WaPOR و ERA5 با هدف محاسبة میزان تبخیروتعرق مرجع روزانه، برمبنای روش تجربی پنمن مانتیث و ارزیابی و صحت‌سنجی خروجی‌های آن در سطح استان سیستان و بلوچستان ایران انجام شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که سامانه‌های سنجش از دوری با دقت بالای 80%، در محل ایستگاه‌های هواشناسی، مقدار تبخیروتعرق مرجع را برآورد کرده‌اند و در تمامی ایستگاه‌ها خطای کمتر از 2 میلی‌متر گزارش شد. همچنین فصل زراعی پانزدهم خرداد تا پانزدهم آبان، در مقایسه با فصل زراعی اول آذر تا پانزدهم اردیبهشت، تبخیروتعرق مرجع به‌دست‌آمده از داده‌های ماهواره‌ای همبستگی بالاتری را نشان می‌دهد. ازآن‌جاکه مقادیر برآورد و صحت‌سنجی‌شده دقت مورد قبولی داشتند، در گام بعدی می‌توان، در هر نقطه از استان، از این سامانه‌ها استفاده کرد

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of Daily Reference Evapotranspiration Using Remote Sensing Data (Case Study: Sistan and Baluchestan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Eslam galehban 1
  • Saeid Hamzeh 2
  • Shadman Veysi 3
  • Seyed Kazem Alavipanah 4

1 M.Sc of Dep. of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

2 Associate Prof., Dep. of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

3 Assistant Prof., Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center

4 Prof. of Dep. of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

چکیده [English]

Determination of the Crop Water Requirement (CWR) of different crops and the value of crop water consumption is one of the problems at a large scale and in real-time to the soil and water expert. The first step to compute this variable is to determine the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). The standard method to compute this parameter is to utilize the climate data and experimental equations. The problem with classic methods is that the meteorological station isn’t available in the agricultural lands and usually, we have data limitations. The optimized solution is to utilize remote sensing data. So with the combination of different datasets then the reference evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration will be estimated. The goal of the study is to an evaluation of open-source WaPOR and ERA5 to compute daily reference evapotranspiration based on the FAO-Penman Monthis equation at the meteorological stations of Sistan and Baluchestan province. The result has shown that the open-source dataset estimated the reference evapotranspiration as more than 80 percent accurate at the place of the meteorological station and in all of the stations RMSE was less than 2 mm per day. The accuracy assessment of results shown at different crop seasons that ET0 in the autumn season is better than in the spring season. So that the ERA5 combined with the GLDAS Wind data has a better correlation with in situ measurement of ET0 than to the WaPOR. All of the results shown that this dataset can be used in each place in the province to estimate ET0.

Therefore, the present study is to investigate the possibility of using the products of WaPOR and ERA5 systems to calculate the amount of daily reference evapotranspiration based on the experimental method of Penman-Monteith and to evaluate and validate its outputs in Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran.

The results showed that remote sensing systems with an accuracy of over 80% at meteorological stations estimated the amount of reference evapotranspiration and an error of less than 2 mm was reported in all stations. Also, studies during the growing season (June 15 to November 6) compared to the growing season (1 November to 15 May) showed that the reference evapotranspiration obtained from satellite data in the first growing season has a higher (R2). Also, the results of NRMSE index evaluation indicate that the reference evapotranspiration obtained from ERA-GLDAS2.1 data is appropriate.Therefore, since the estimated and validated values had acceptable accuracy, in the next step, these systems can be used anywhere in the province.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Reference evapotranspiration
  • Meteorological station
  • Remote sensing
  • WaPOR
  • ERA5
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