نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت و کنترل بیابان، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی و کویر‌شناسی، دانشگاه یزد

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت و کنترل بیابان، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی و کویر‌شناسی، دانشگاه یزد

3 استادیار گروه مدیریت و کنترل بیابان، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی و کویر‌شناسی، دانشگاه یزد

چکیده

دمای سطح زمین یکی از پارامترهای مؤثر و مهم در فرایندهای فیزیک سطح زمین در تمامی مقیاس‌ها، از محلی تا جهانی، محسوب می‌شود. در این مطالعه، رابطة بین دمای سطح زمین با پوشش‌گیاهی و رطوبت سطحی خاک، در کاربری‌های اراضی منطقة زهک دشت سیستان، بررسی شد. بدین‌منظور تصاویر ماهواره‌ای لندست TM (1987)، TM (2001) و  OLI(2018) به‌کار رفت. پس از مراحل پیش‌‌پردازش و پردازش تصاویر، نقشه‌های کاربری اراضی براساس روش طبقه‌بندی نظارت‌شده و از طریق الگوریتم حداکثر احتمال در دورة سی‌ساله استخراج شد. همچنین دمای سطح زمین با روش پنجرة مجزا به‌دست آمد و ارتباط بین آن با پوشش گیاهی و رطوبت خاک، با روش آماری، ارزیابی شد. طبق نتایج، دقت طبقه‌بندی به‌روش حداکثر احتمال با بررسی از طریق داده‌های حقایق‌ زمینی، تصاویر TM و OLI، برحسب ضریب آماری کاپا، به‌ترتیب 89/0، 95/0 و 84/0 و براساس صحت کلی 8/91، 45/96 و 89/87% به‌‌دست آمد. طی سال‌های 1987، 2001 و 2018 میانگین شاخص‌های دمای سطح زمین 13/38، 73/45 و 14/41 درجة سانتی‌گراد، شاخص تفاضلی نرمال‌شدة پوشش گیاهی 11/0-، 13/0- و 16/0- و شاخص تفاضلی نرمال‌شدة رطوبت 64/0، 63/0 و 58/0 برآورد شد. ارتباط دمای سطح زمین و شاخص تفاضلی نرمال‌شدة پوشش گیاهی فاقد همبستگی بود. همبستگی بین دمای سطح زمین و شاخص تفاضلی نرمال‌شدة رطوبت نیز معکوس و منفی شد. بر اثر عوامل پدیدآورندة خشکسالی هیدرولوژیکی و شرایط اقلیمی ناشی از کاهش بارندگی، افزایش دمای هوا و وزش طوفان‌های گردوغبار، زادآوری و رشد گیاهان کاهش یافته است؛ بنابراین، به‌دنبال فقدان پوشش گیاهی مناسب، پوشش گیاهی در کاهش دمای سطح زمین منطقة مورد مطالعه تأثیری ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Relationship between Land Surface Temperature with Vegetation and Surface Moisture in the Land Use of Zahak Area of Sistan Plain Using Landsat Satellite Images

نویسندگان [English]

  • zohreh hashemi 1
  • Hamid Soodaei zadeh 2
  • Mohammad Hossein Mokhtari 3

1 Ph.D. Student in Desert Management and Control, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University

2 Associate Prof. of Desert Management and Control, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University

3 Assistant Prof. of Desert Management and Control, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University

چکیده [English]

Land surface temperature is considered a key parameter in the physic processes of land surface at all scales of local to global. In this study, the relationship between land surface temperature with vegetation and soil surface moisture in land uses of Zahak plain of Sistan area was investigated. In order to, Landsat TM (1987), TM (2001) and OLI (2018) satellite imagery were used. After the preprocessing and image processing steps, the extraction of land use maps was performed based on the monitored classification method and through maximum probability algorithm for a period of 30 years. Also, land surface temperature was evaluated statistically by separate window method and the relationship between land surface temperature with vegetation and soil moisture. The results showed that the accuracy of classification by maximum probability method through geomorphic facts data, TM and OLI images in terms of kappa coefficient of 0.89, 0.95 and 0.84, respectively, based on the overall accuracy of 91.8, 96.45 and 87.89% was obtained. During 1987, 2001 and 2018, average of the land surface temperature indices were 38.13, 45.73 and 41.14 ° C, the normalized difference vegetation index was -0.11, -0.13 and -0.16, and the normalized difference moisture index was estimated 0.64, 0.63 and 0.58. The relationship between land surface temperature and normalized difference of vegetation index was no correlative. The correlation between land surface temperature and the normalized difference of humidity index was also inverted and negative. Plant regeneration and growth was decreased owing to factors including hydrological drought and Climatic conditions due to reduced rainfall, rising air temperature and Dust storms. Therefore, due to the lack of suitable vegetation, vegetation is not effective in reducing the surface temperature of the study area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land surface temperature
  • Land use
  • NDVI
  • Normalized difference of moisture index
  • Sistan plain
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