نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کردستان‌، سنندج

2 دانشیار گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، ایران

3 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کردستان‌، سنندج

4 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی‌، گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر، با تغییر کاربری و توسعة اراضی کشاورزی در حوضه‌های کشور، میزان فرسایش و تولید رسوب افزایش یافته است. با توجه به اینکه در بیشتر زیرحوضه‌ها، آمار ایستگاه‌های رسوب‌سنجی به‌صورت درازمدت ثبت نشده است، برآورد میزان رسوب و فرسایش با مشکلاتی مواجه است. هدف از این پژوهش تعیین عوامل مؤثر در فرسایش و رسوب و تعیین مقادیر کمّی فرسایش در حوضة آبخیز خورخوره در استان کردستان است. به این منظور، ابتدا با استفاده از نقشه‌های توپوگرافی، زمین‌شناسی و عکس‌های هوایی در محیط GIS، نقشة نوع و گونه‌های فرسایش تهیه شد و این نقشه‌ها، با بررسی‌های صحرایی، تدقیق و ارزیابی شدند. براساس مدل MPSIAC، عوامل نُه‌گانة مؤثر در فرسایش درمورد تمامی زیرحوضه‌ها، به‌تفکیک بررسی شد و امتیازات هر عامل به‌دست آمد. با جمع امتیازات عوامل، درجة رسوب‌دهی برای هر زیرحوضه تعیین و سپس مقدار رسوب و فرسایش ویژه و فرسایش کل در هر زیرحوضه محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد عوامل توپوگرافی و وضعیت فعلی فرسایش بیشترین نقش و عامل آب‌وهوا کمترین نقش را در میزان رسوب‌دهی حوضه دارند. طبق نتایج، 92% کل حوضه دارای درجة رسوب‌دهی زیاد در کلاس فرسایش درجة چهار است. نسبت رسوب تحویلی حوضه (SDR) بین 32 تا 50% متغیر است. کمترین و بیشترین مقدار فرسایش ویژه در زیرحوضه‌های متفاوت، به‌ترتیب معادل 10 و 35 تن بر هکتار در سال، به‌دست آمد. مقدار رسوب ویژه و فرسایش ویژة کل حوضه نیز، به‌ترتیب 4/6 و 4/17 تن بر هکتار در سال، حاصل شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the Erosion and Sedimentation Using MPSIAC Model and GIS System in Khorkhoreh Watershed, Kurdistan, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ata Amini 1
  • mehdi Karami Moghadam 2
  • Mohammad Hossein Sedri 3
  • Somayyeh Kazemi 4

1 Associate Prof, Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj

2 Associate Prof., Dep. of Agriculture, Payame Noor University (PNU)

3 Assistant Prof. of Soil and Water Research Dep., Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj

4 Ph.D. Candidate of Agricultural Economic, Kurdistan University, Sanandaj

چکیده [English]

In recent years, with the change of use and development of agricultural lands in the country's basins, the rate of erosion and sediment production has increased. Given that in most sub-basins, the long term data of sedimentation stations have not been recorded, it is difficult to estimate the amount of sedimentation and erosion. The objectives of this study was to determine the factors influencing erosion and sedimentation and to determine the quantitative values of erosion in the Khorkhoreh watershed, Kurdistan, Iran. For this purpose, first, using topographic maps, geology and aerial photographs in GIS environment, type and shape maps of erosion were prepared and evaluated by field survey. Based on the MPSIAC model, the nine factors influencing erosion for all sub-basins were identified separately and the scores of each factor were determined. By summing the factors, the degree of sedimentation for each sub-basin was determined and the amount of sedimentation and special erosion and total erosion in each sub-basin were calculated. The results showed that the topographic factors and the current state of erosion have the most role and the weather factor has the least role in the sedimentation rate of the basin.Moreover, 92% of the total basin has a high degree of sedimentation in the fourth order erosion class. The amount of Sediment Delivery Ratio of the basin (SDR) varies between 32 and 50 percent. The lowest and highest specific erosion rates in different sub-basins were 10 and 35 ton/ha.yr, respectively. Also, the amount of special sediment and special erosion of the whole basin was 6.4 and 17.4 ton/ha.yr, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • MPSIAC method
  • GIS
  • Sediment
  • Erosion
  • Basin management
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